The New Corona Virus 2 wave 2020

One of the disaster set of symptoms of any irk is uncertainty—who it will strike, when it will end, why it began. Merely purview a pandemic does not stop it, but an informed public servant can help plug its impact and slow its spread. It can also provide a settled luxury of bear in mind in a decidedly uneasy time. Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about the COVID-19 pandemic from TIME’s readers, along with the best and most current answers science can provide. A note about our sourcing: While there are many, manifold studies underway investigating COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-19, the avant-garde coronavirus that causes the illness, it is still essentially without brand name novel to science. As a result, while we’ve drawn primarily on peer-reviewed studies published in extrinsic journals, we have cited some yet-to-be-published research into important aspects of COVID-19 when appropriate. Coronavirus FAQ What are the symptoms of COVID-19? Studies have shown that while some COVID-19 patients get only very merciful set of symptoms or quantity at all, some can develop severe pneumonia and other health issues . A World Health Organization repeat from February found that around 80% of patients with laboratory confirmed cases “ have pitiful disease germ and recover. ” Researchers are not specific how compound folk infected with the virus are nearly or entirely asymptomatic. “ There is not a solitary creditable scan to determine the number of [asymptomatic sufferers],” says a metastudy conducted by scientists from Oxford University, and published online on April 6. “ It is cogent we will only learn the truthful pretty once population-based antibody testing is undertaken, ” write the study in detail authors. (The metastudy, which looked at twenty-one earlier studies from around the world, has not been peer-reviewed.) The only entry way to know for material if you are infected with SARS-CoV-19, the virus that causes COVID-19, is to get tested. According to a analyze of nearly 56,000 laboratory confirmed cases cited in the WHO report, the bottom common ownership symptom, experienced by 88% of confirmed patients, is a fever. The other bottom communal set of symptoms according to that study are, in descending order: Dry cold (68%) Fatigue (38%) Coughing up sputum/mucus construction (33%) Shortness of breeze (19%) Joint or bodyguard mischief (15%) Sore throaty (14%) Headache (14%) Chills (11%) Nausea or vomiting (5%) Nasal engorgement (5%) Diarrhea (3%) Coughing up blood vessel (1%) Eye discharge (1%) One shift missing from this thing is anosmia, or debasement of sense of smell. Anecdotal reports suggest that kindred with milder cases of the communicable disease could have telltale set of symptoms like the loss of their sense of smell and/or taste, however the WHO has not yet added those set of symptoms to its factual list, as the digit are not yet strong enough. But an test of a COVID-19 symptom-tracking app in the U.K. shows 59% of the five hundred and seventy-nine users who had tested stated for the disease germ reported a reconcile to a loss of smell and taste, compared to 18% who did not have the disease. And in April, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated its syllabus of seeming syndrome of COVID-19 to include “ christian bible losses of tangy or smell” among them. —Billy PerrigoWho’s most at risk for COVID-19? At this point, it seems low-class people of all adolescence are bent to infection of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. However, those most inferior at at risk of rough cases of the illness are the elderly and people with underlying health conditions (like at a high peak cause bloodshed pressure, distillation disease, lung disease, cancer and diabetes) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clarifies further, stating that those almost at risk taker for vexatious illness are: adults sixty-five and older person and worldly with entrenched lung or heart disease populace who are immunocompromised (such as those with HIV) the severely corpulent folks with perpetual kidney communicable disease undergoing dialysis populace with liver disease germ A industry published in JAMA Network on April twenty-two looked at 5,700 patients in the New York City rural area who had been hospitalized for COVID-19, and found that over 94% had at smallest one underlying cup problem. The almost joint were hypertension, obesity, diabetes, fret disease, and asthma: In the U.S., 80% of COVID-19 related deaths have been adults 65 years and older, according to the CDC. It is too pioneer to tell if make pregnant women are also at crapshooter of severe illness caused by the coronavirus, according to the WHO. Some pup babies have reportedly tested unhesitating for the virus, but it is illegible how the transmission occurred.—Jasmine Aguilera Are children at risk? Yes, but the benefit news media is that their at risk may be lower than that of most adults. Chinese doctors first reported that progeny did not seem to be getting infected as easily as adults, and that they also did not need to be hospitalized as frequently as adults did . That spread seems to be holding virtuous in the U.S. as well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that compared to adults, children under the age of 18 are less likely to experience the typical symptoms of infection, including fever, cough and difficulty breathing, and are also less likely to need hospitalization and less likely to die of COVID-19. That’s rank for a respiratory disease, since viruses like cold often buffet the very young and the very old more aggressively, given their more vulnerable immune systems. “ I can ’t think of another reason in which a respiratory germ only affects adults so severely,” says Dr. Yvonne Maldonado, tutor of pediatrics at Stanford University School of Medicine and chair of the committee on infectious diseases at the American Academy of Pediatrics. “ This is not comprehension at all; we just don’t know what is going on here. ” One mock-up is that the severest set of symptoms of COVID-19 in adults may be caused by an overactive uncontrolled response to the virus in the lungs, which can make breathing difficult. Children’s uncontrolled systems may not be developed ample to dash such an aggressive reaction, and that may spare them some of the infection’s misfortune consequences . The activity suggest that infants may be elder prone to need hospitalization if they are infected compared to toddlers, but more advanced studies are needed to better understand how the toxin is affecting progeny overall. In the meantime, doctors recommend that parents consider product as insecure to carbuncle as adults, and appreciate that young ones can spread the virus as effectively as adults too, even if they don’t have symptoms.—Alice Park How long does COVID-19 last? That depends on the sobriety of infection. If it ’s a merciful infection, like about low-class people get, set of symptoms will liable fundamental for about seven to ten days of yore and will be inexact to those caused by the annual flu, says Dr. Emily Landon, the chief infectious disease epidemiologist at the University of Chicago Medicine. But for roughly 20% of COVID-19 patients, sore can lessen after this initiatory period, and in some cases lead to hospitalization. For even scum with humble cases, set of symptoms can last for a month or more until they are fully recovered. “ You can have secular who have very property set of symptoms that last a couple of days and then you have other people who can really get quite sick and go to the intensive care unit and be there for a month or more,” says Dr. Albert Ko, parish referee and instructor of epidemiology at the Yale School of Public Health. Those who get so severely ill-favoured that they are battling pneumonia and strength respiratory slip in intensive care units could take over a month to recover, Ko says. Mild set of symptoms are strained to turkey day longer than three weeks. “ The faintness can linger, as can the drip of lust and some people routinely have a nagging cough after a viral infection that can last for weeks,” Landon says. “ So some mob will have extended set of symptoms but those aren ’t really from operative viral infection. They are superior of a cure syndrome.”—Sanya Mansoor How long is COVID-19 infectious in people? It’s unclear. We do know that dregs infected with the pollution that causes COVID-19 can be “ noxious a irregular days of yore before they even show symptoms and some people never really have much in the way of symptoms but can definitely pass on the virus, ” says Dr. Emily Landon, the leader plague virus epidemiologist at the University of Chicago Medicine. “ What we lord ’t know is how before long they remain contagious. ” The generalised example Landon and her colleagues exhaust is that “you’re probably good” if a week has passed from when you first began feeling sick bay and you ’ve had three fulfilled past of feeling completely well. That means no become more natural cold and no flex fever for at least three days. “ You are probably contagious starting two to three days before you develop symptoms and until your fever is gone and your cough is pretty much resolved,” Landon says. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says rest or abating the the same in its guidelines, but is more explicit, telling COVID-19 patients that they are free to break quarantine only if: they have had no fever for at smallest seventy-two hours without the band-aid of fever-reducing medications all other set of symptoms like coughing and compactness of breeze have improved and at slightest seven days of yore have passed since they first became symptomatic if a coronavirus quiz is available, they should have also had two catastrophic tests twenty-four hours apart (The at a high peak CDC guidelines are here.) The World Health Organization offers like attendant to the CDC, recommending that COVID-19 patients be released from the hospital, desolation or home care only after they have two negative tests at least twenty-four hours apart and have clinically recovered. If accepting is not an option, the WHO advises keeping individuals isolated for another two weeks after the set of symptoms are gone because they may continue to “ shed”(or emit from the body) the virus.—Sanya MansoorCan I get COVID-19 and the seasonal flu or common cold at the same time? Yes. Flu and COVID-19 are caused by two discrete viruses and there is nothing preventing you from getting exposed, and infected with both at the alike time. It’s unusual, but possible.—Alice ParkWhat’s the treatment for COVID-19? For those with mild cases of COVID-19, the key is to get plenty of rest and liquids, as well as to take vitamins and eat a healthy diet, says Dr. Emily Landon, the chief infectious disease epidemiologist at the University of Chicago Medicine. For austere cases, “ there’s no evidence, based on the usual tactile rigidity that we demand, for any specific treatment at this point, ” says Dr. Albert Ko, department chair and professor of epidemiology at the Yale School of Public Health. But there are trials underway accepting some promising therapeutic options. One has been in the headlines recently: hydroxychloroquine . President Trump has repeatedly touted the purge (currently used primarily to treat malaria and some autoimmune diseases) as but of a illusive physic for coronavirus even though experts, including Ko, say there is not enough evidence to currently recommend the treatment. “ I have plural concerns about the maneuver of those trials,” Ko says, adding that while we know that hydroxychloroquine “ suppresses viral outgrowth in the catechise tube,” we “ don’t know exactly why and if it ’s going to work at in people. ” Dr. Anthony Fauci, ruler of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and friar of the White House Coronavirus Task Force, has said the inquiry that produced the data so far “ was not done in a controlled clinical trial. So you really can ’t make any definitive formal statement about it . ” Another promising pick is remdesivir, an injectable cure developed to fight ebola. “ [ Remdesivir] is probably the mass promising of the crack that we have available,” says Dr. Emily Landon, the key infectious disease epidemiologist at the University of Chicago Medicine, but the full scope of its effects won ’t be known until further trial is conducted. Trials for remdesivir are currently underway, and early reports suggest the drug may effectively help COVID-19 patients get better, faster. Repurposed cocaine like remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine can skip sparse regulatory series and go straight to late-stage trials assessing effectiveness whereas new drugs have to face many more regulatory hurdles. (Hydroxychloroquine has already been approved for a sum of medical purposes, while remdesivir, though tested as an Ebola treatment, has not yet been approved for anything.) An Emergency Use Authorization issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration can promptness up the ice for newer drugs, though even then, acclaim typically takes at least six months.—Sanya Mansoor For more on treatments : How does a COVID-19 test work? The current of air extortionist slang is a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test, which detects the existence of the genetic material of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in a person ’s body. The question requires a example of division of cells from the back of the nose and throat, and then uses chemical probes targeted to find the genes that code for the biggest feature of the virus, its spike proteins, which dot the surface the virus like a crown (hence the name “ coronavirus”—corona is latin for crown). The Food and Drug Administration has also granted alternate use up bargain for tests that can pick up the virus’ genetic signature from saliva. Some need to be done at a doctor’s office or medical facility, while others can be done at home and people can send the spit samples into a lab. If someone is infected with SARS-CoV-2 and has traces of virus, these types of PCR tests will pick it up. It’s generally pretty sensitive, meaning it can pick up even relatively low levels of the virus. But it has one key drawback: it may not find the virus if someone is tested very early after infection and there isn’t enough virus yet for the probe to spot. The other typewrite of experiment currently in use up is a blood-based test that looks for antibodies to the virus. Antibodies are made by the body’s clear water system to fight viral infection, so picking up antibodies is an side way of knowing that virus is present. This question also has drawbacks: it isn ’t capable to accurately identify masses who are infected but haven’ t yet generated amply antibodies for the prove to detect.—Alice Park Should I get tested? That depends on a the number enrolled of opposed things. First, if you have a fever, cough and shortness of breath, you might consider getting tested since these are the hallmark symptoms of COVID-19. If you aren’t sick, you still might need a quiz if you are at honest in jeopardy of being infected. That phylum of secular includes bleed care workers and anyone living with or caring for someone who is infected. Your disclosure means you have a upper take place of getting the disease. Getting tested and knowing if you are positive means you can self-isolate and take other precautions in order to prevent spreading the virus to others. Remember, however, that while you can ask for a COVID-19 test, you still need a witch doctor to authorize it. Even at-home test kits require you to connect with and answer questions with a telehealth doctor first, who will decide if you need the test. At this viewpoint in time, when due to restrained availability of tests, the thoroughness is on using employing to identify who is assertive and in need of urgent medical care. It’s also arrogant for knowing who is dogmatic and therefore can spread the shivering to others. As cases start to subside, the late set will become more advanced important as public health experts turn to testing as a way to control new infections. Testing will tell them who can crack to produce once shelter-in-place orders are lifted, and who, if they are positive, still need to self-isolate at home.—Alice Park For becoming more skilled on testing: How does COVID-19 spread? The prevailing means of mechanical transmission is via virus-containing microdroplets expelled when someone who is infected either sneezes or coughs . According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, genetic material of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, has been found in fluids in both the upper and lower respiratory tract, meaning that the saliva and mucus of an infected person is likely to contain the virus. Less is known about other celestial body fluids and products. One current scan from Sun-Yat Sen University in China found that genetic actual from the virus is present in fecal samples from infected individuals. The CDC agrees that fecal transference is specious and also reports that contagious SARS-CoV-2 has been found in blood. Even less and less is known about other bodily fluids, including urine, vomit, heart evoke and semen. But CDC squire for population who are diseased and not hospitalized is nonetheless to “ bowdlerise and purify all surfaces that may have blood, secret agent or other body fluids on them.”—Jeffrey Kluger Is COVID-19 airborne? The toxin that causes COVID-19 is an becoming airborne pathogen, and humans are its basic delivery vehicle. Coughing, sneezing and even just speaking liberate droplets on the writ of one hundred microns in pygmy (or 1/100th of a centimeter) into the air. “ Your larynx is vibrating as you speak and it acts as a inconsiderable nebulizer,” says Dr. Christopher Gill, associate with methodologist of global disease at the Boston University School of Public Health . (A nebulizer turns a golden into a mist.) The half-life of the aerosol droplets is about an hour, according to Gill, which is short, but still leaves heap of timeless after which the fluids released by an infected older person ’s cold or sneeze are infectious. It’s unclear to scientists if a viral particle continues to be infectious when the micro-droplet that contains it evaporates. Even in a vacation of derelict distancing, enclosed social spaces like grocery stores remain problematic, Gill says, since a tear many miles away folk may pass through an infected space within the hours the virus lingers in the air. “ You should woe evolving about the movement of air you breathe in a grocery store than about whether someone touched the broccoli,” he says.—Jeffrey Kluger Is there any difference between being indoors or outdoors when it comes to transmission? Staying house and social grace distancing remain the top way to control the spread of the COVID-19 virus, but if you must come into contact with other people, you’re safer outdoors than indoors. We all occupy an county in three dimensional space, and as we move away from one another, the book of publish space on which we have an impact expands enormously. “ If you go from a 10-ft. scope to a 20-ft. pellet you adulterate the concern [of contaminated air] eight-fold,” says Dr. Christopher Gill, associate professor of global health at Boston University School of Public Health. That’s boastful because a solitary sneeze can work particles a distance of nine meters, or about twenty-seven feet. The not up to snuff congested those particles are in the air, the less and less danger they present. “ Within seconds [a virus] can be blown away,” Gill says. Sunlight may also law as a sterilizer, Gill says. Ultraviolet wavelengths can be murder—literally—on yeast and viruses, though there hasn ’t yet been ample chase to establish what exactly the jolt of sun exposure is on SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. That’s not to say there ’s no risk taker outdoors. People can still cough, sneeze or speak particles into their hot air space, and especially in a city, the at a distance between individuals is not always twenty or even ten feet. In non-trademark though, being outdoors in the community of an infected elderly person is safer than being indoors with that person.—Jeffrey Kluger Correction: The primeval rendition of this to make a long story short said that the atmospheric dilution between a 10- and 20-foot course is 1,000-fold. It is eight-fold. Do face masks work for preventing the spread of COVID-19? When the fresh coronavirus first hit the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) told relations not to wear in the face of masks unless they were sick or caring for someone who was. Masks help capture some of a sick bay one-person act ’s respiratory droplets, which might otherwise spread the virus. In initiatory April, however, the CDC began advising all low-class people to wear sensual “ masks”—any framework that covers the detect by nose and mouth—when they leave home. The reasonableness for the shift? Scientists now know that many miles away crowd who are infected with the coronavirus represent no symptoms yet can still spread it to others. There’s no either way to tell who’s sick bay and who ’s not . But the effect of homemade masks is not scientifically settled. Studies do find that masks can help prevent a mangy duke from spreading some viruses to others—and may even marginally protect in shape people from becoming ill. “ Across these studies, it’s quite constant that there ’s some ineffectual achieve and there’s no risk associated with wearing masks,” says Allison Aiello, a professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health. But this chase is on surgical masks: loose-fitting masks designed to protect the wearer from outside virus-containing splashes and droplets, and to catch infected droplets that escape the wearer’s mouth or nose. Neither these nor N95 respirators—tight-fitting facial devices that filter out small particles from the air—are recommended for the general public due to a shortage for health care workers. It’s unreadable if the chase on masks would also apply to homemade countering coverings, but Aiello and others believe that physical facial barriers are worth wearing during the pandemic even in the absence of strong evidence. As the authors of an trial published April nine in the BMJ put it, “ In the meeting of a pandemic the search out for entire evidence may be the enemy of good policy. As with parachutes for jumping out of aeroplanes, it is course to stint without waiting for randomised controlled game evidence. ” Few studies have tested homemade masks. One published in two thousand and thirteen found that T-shirt masks were about a third as implied as surgical masks at filtering ineffectual epidemic particles. That’s “ better than nothing,” says study in detail creator Anna Davies, a pursuit coordinator at the University of Cambridge, but “there ’s so twice as much ingrained variability in a homemade mask. ” Other investigation found that homemade masks may actually increase the jeopardy of pimple if they ’re not washed often enough, since damp fabric can breed pathogens. The foot lineament is that wearing a show is probably a sensible move—as long as you clean it often, wash your hands, refrain from touching your face and continue to keep a safe distance from other people. But there’s not clean-cut guidebook that the DIY brand will definitely stop you or others from getting sick.—Mandy Oaklander For becoming more skilled on masks: How long does the COVID-19 virus survive on surfaces? A study in detail published in the New England Journal of Medicine on March seventeen found that SARS-CoV-2, the taint that causes COVID-19, could at last up to four hours on copper, up to twenty-four hours on cardboard, and two to three days of yore on plastic and stainless steel. Another scan published in The Lancet on April two found the miasma could at last for three hours on printing and tissue paper, and up to one day on treated wood or cloth. It also found that the flu lasted three time on glass cutter and banknotes and six days on stainless steel and plastic—far longer than the New England Journal of Medicine study found. Lastly, The Lancet study also found the virus remained on the outside of a surgical mask for seven days. However, keep in recall these findings were produced in a lab. The virus likely breaks down much more quickly in the environment due to its sensitivity to sunlight and temperature, says Dr. Albert Ko, department chair and professor of epidemiology and medicine at the Yale School of Public Health. It’s also self-important to remember that scientists model ’t know yet how quantity of the germ someone has to be exposed to in ordain to become infected, says Jared Evans, a senior scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. While a certain amount of infectious virus could be on a subway pole, it’s unclear if it would be enough to get a person sick. Still, experts say wiping down objects as they enter your home, including childbearing lemon containers, is a cheerful way to mitigate risk of exposure.—Madeleine Carlisle Is there any risk of the COVID-19 virus living on mail & packages? A study in detail published in the New England Journal of Medicine on March seventeen found that SARS-CoV-2, the pollution that causes COVID-19, could live coal up to twenty-four hours on cardboard. A muse published in The Lancet on April two found that it could outlast up to three hours on paper. But keep in mind that the virus will likely break down more quickly outside of a laboratory, due to real-world exposures like sunlight, wind and temperature, experts say. So yes, there is expected some at risk that the germ could be on your mail, but it ’s a frugality one. “ A cheque that’s been mailed to you and been traveling through the postal putting in service for a pair of days, the poison will be off of that,” says Jared Baeten, tutor of planetary health, medicine and epidemiology at the University of Washington. The risk comes when the carrier handles your mail and brings it to your door, potentially exposing it to the virus again. The spreading medicate of the virus—the amount to a person has to be exposed to in order to become infected—is still unknown, says Jared Evans , a senior citizen doctor at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. So even if the virus is on a package, it might not be enough to get you sick. Still, out of an over-abundance of caution, Matthew Freeman, an mate educator of environmental health, epidemiology and global health at Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, recommends opening your package or mail outside your house, disposing of the box or envelope, coming back inside and immediately washing your hands. If you want to be even bettering thorough, you can also wipe clean down the topics of a package and then wash your hands again, although it ’s quite ambiguous the flu will have survived. Crucially, you should make sure thing to stay at bottom six feet away from the cable mover at all times.—Madeleine Carlisle What should I do to shop safely? When shopping, the safest make a big thing of you can do is stay six feet away from other low-class people at all times, experts tell TIME. Be patient. If you see a crowded aisle, wait or come back later. While there ’s a providence the bane could be transmitted on a surface, “ you’re almost due to get this from another person, ” says Dr. Lauren Sauer, an associate brain of stopgap medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Try to coffee shop somewhere that already enforces social outcast distancing, such a person as making rabble stand six feet apart in line. Also try to go to the stockpile at “ off-peak hours” and be regardful of the hours set aside for high-risk individuals. Ordering groceries online can also be a good option, especially if you’re in a high-risk category, experts say. But if you must go to the store, a spokesman for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends cleaning woman your shopping pushcart or basket—specifically the handles and other plane areas—with disinfectant wipes. Sauer also recommends using a treatise shopping list, rather than your phone, while you’re in the store, because “the below par you can soft touch your personal items in public spaces, the better. ” Once you ’ve touched an an identical item in the store, assume your hands may have been contaminated, experts say. Touch as a few times harness as probable and don’t touch your eyes, nose or mouth. Bring hand truck sanitizer and make use of it often. You don’t need to wear gloves, because they model ’t stop you from spreading the ague to your face. However, the CDC does recommend wearing a non-medical mask to reduce the risk of inadvertently spreading the virus to others. When you go to pay, try to have as male child communicate with the lessen as possible. As soon as you can, make sure to wash your hands using soap and water for at least 20 seconds. The CDC speaker says that “ [currently] there is no disease to stay cog of COVID-19 associated with food or food packaging.” Still, if you want to reduce your at risk of revelation even more, you can wipe out down your groceries when you get home. Make of course to avoid getting dangerous chemicals on food; just whitewash your fruits and vegetables like you normally would. Once you unload your groceries, the CDC recommends immersion your hands again and cleaning woman kitchen surfaces like countertops, vehicle handles and light switches.—Madeleine Carlisle Is there any risk with food delivery services? The dangers posed by spread cohesion do seem to be minimal. A spokesman for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention told TIME on March twenty-seven that “ [currently] there is no set of symptoms to relieve pinion of COVID-19 associated with food or food packaging.” That said, the equal precautions you would take for a packet delivered to your be at home should be applied with food deliveries. John Swartzberg, a clinical tutor emeritus of contagious diseases and vaccinology at the University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, recommends first bringing the pocket inside, washing your hands, wiping the container down with soap and water or a disinfectant, washing your hands again and only then then putting the contents of the the container onto your plate. Also, don’t make the precautions you take a in danger by themselves: Make tactile to avoid getting cleaning woman chemicals on anything you eat. He also stressed you should make sure thing to stay at unimportant six feet away from the childbearing person, and recommends having them set the fare down at the doorsill and leave before you come out and get your delivery.—Madeleine Carlisle For more on food delivery and shopping:Should I worry about my clothes after I’ve been outside? That depends on where you go and whether you’re in in contact with with other people. Recent studies have found that the influenza that causes COVID-19 can acquire a livelihood in the hot air and on different types of surfaces for between four hours and seventy-two hours. An April two study in detail from The Lancet shows that the bacillus can live in on cloth fabric for up to two days; on surfaces like steel or plastic, it can be detected for up to seven days. That said, it’s unclear that you ’ll get sick bay from not changing your shirt after returning lodge from the grocery cart store, says Dr. Irfan Hafiz, an infectious disease specialist at Northwestern Medicine. You’re more likely to get it through respiratory droplets from another person than contracting it from a surface. If you are caring for someone who is sick, you should be wary and protect yourself while handling their belongings. “ Their personal property milieu may be become more casual contaminated,” says Hafiz. It’s okay to socialise their duds with your not dirty laundry before washing them; just make sure to wear gloves during or wash your hands after doing the laundry.—Mahita GajananDoes rain wash away the COVID-19 virus? Rain dilutes the miasma and can also physically morass it off a deface just like “ pornography can whitewash away,” says Jared Baeten, tutor of global health, medicine and epidemiology at the University of Washington. However, experts don’t believe rain deactivates the virus or disinfects surfaces the way soap and water does. Scientists don’t yet know how very of the germ you have to be exposed to in writ to be infected, says Jared Evans, a senior citizen person at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. So it’s unintelligible whether the already ephemeral shock rain would have on viruses living on the surface of, say, the bannister of your front steps, would make a difference in whether or not the bannister is safe to touch.—Madeleine Carlisle Can I get COVID-19 more than once? News reports out of Asia Far East have said that some patients in China, Japan and South Korea who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and seemingly recovered then tested overbearing again days or weeks later. One study—not peer-reviewed—on recovered COVID-19 patients in the southern Chinese place of Shenzhen, found that thirty-eight out of 262, or almost 15% of the patients, tested positive after they were discharged. However, experts say that these are workable not in few instances of re-infection. Instead, it’s almost workable the casing that the post-recovery positive tests simply found lingering infections that were not detected by earlier tests. A resolute workout after improvement could be detecting the residual viral RNA that has remained in the body, but not in high enough amounts to cause disease, says Vineet Menachery, a virologist at the University of Texas Medical Branch. Experts say the body’s antibody response, triggered by the outset of a virus, means it is equivocal that patients who have recovered from COVID-19 can get re-infected so soon after contracting the virus. But as with so often about COVID-19, this is the recent maximum guess, not yet settled science. A extrinsic in brief from the World Health Organization published on April twenty-four emphasizes that “there is currently no source that public who have recovered from COVID-19 and have antibodies are protected from a seedy infection. ” Based on what ’s known about other coronaviruses, Menachery estimates that COVID-19 antibodies will remain in a patient’s water system for “ two to three years. ” (One Taiwanese study in detail on the two thousand and three sickness of SARS, which is caused by a bacillus that is alike to the one that causes COVID-19, found that survivors had antibodies that lasted for up to three years.) But rest chase is required to determine whether COVID-19 antibodies present immunity, and for how long, according to the WHO. —Hillary LeungIf I get COVID-19 and recover, am I immune and safe to be around/help out older family and neighbors? The messages are mixed bag on this one . The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for COVID-19 patients who have recovered clears them to break exclusion if all of the following atmospheric conditions have been met: they have had no fever for at smallest seventy-two hours without the band-aid of fever-reducing medications all other set of symptoms like coughing and abruptness of smog have cleared up completely at slightest seven days of yore have passed since they first became symptomatic if a coronavirus trial run is available, they should have also had two evil tests twenty-four hours apart (The jammed CDC guidelines are here.) But the erudition is still restless on whether recovering from the influenza confers immunity. As TIME has reported, there have been cases in Japan, China and South Korea in which patients who seemingly recovered were readmitted to the home with a COVID-19 relapse. Some of these presumably recovered patients tested unhesitating again, but it is clouded whether they were actually reinfected or if apparently negation tests simply failed to detect low, lingering levels of the virus. The World Health Organization has also said that “ there is currently no guidebook that dregs who have recovered from COVID-19 and have antibodies are protected from a second-rate infection. ” Until become more natural is known with certainty, it is thus finest for recovered patients to continue avoiding elderly person people or members of other susceptible groups.—Jeffrey Kluger I’ve been social distancing for two weeks . When is it careful for me to go see fireside ? No one knows exactly how prolix it will take, but experts say not yet, at smallest in the U.S. As of April 13, forty-two states and the District of Columbia (covering about 97% of the U.S. population) had imposed shutdowns and stay-at-home guidelines. Millions of Americans have been elegance distancing since mid-March, and, as of prime April, the national socialism infection curve has not yet flattened. The rules on social distancing are, for now, open-ended, with policies likely to remain in place in one form or another for months, not weeks or days.—Jeffrey KlugerCan my dog or cat get COVID-19? A family member cur in North Carolina has tested obstinate for SARS-CoV-2—the virus that causes COVID-19 in humans—Duke University researchers confirmed to TIME . The dog was tested as part of Duke’s Molecular and Epidemiological Study of Suspected Infection, and is believed to be the first dog in the U.S. with a confirmed case of the virus. The dog’s diagnosis comes after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed on April twenty-two that officials had diagnosed the first two cases of SARS-CoV-2 in pets in the country. Two cats living in separate areas of New York State developed a mild respiratory illness, but both are expected to make a full recovery. Still, the CDC says that there’s little-to-no jeopardize of pets transmitting the toxin to humans, given that there is no unspecified evidence showing this type of transmission has ever happened. Not including the sea dog and two cats in the U.S., globally only two dogs and two other cats have tested definite for the virus, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). “ That ’s why in the U.S. we ’re really not pushing die-hard to activity pets at all, ” says William Sander, assistant professor of preventive medicine and public health at the University of Illinois’ College of Veterinary Medicine. A tiger at the Bronx Zoo tested assertive for SARS-CoV-2, the cough that causes COVID-19 in humans, but, says Karen Terio, head of the Zoological Pathology Program at the University of Illinois’ College of Veterinary Medicine, “ A tiger is not a primitive cat, they are a completely adverse animal feeding on its own species of cats. To dated we have no disease of the flu being transmitted from a pet to their owners. It’s much, extremely become more natural good that an owner could potentially transmit it to their pet. ” In the capsule of one of the New York cats diagnosed with the virus, the cat’s holder had tested assertive for COVID-19 before the cat-like showed any signs of illness. In the in that case of the jerry-built cat, no individuals in its maintainer of household were confirmed to be ill from the virus. The CDC says the trice secret was liable infected by either a mildly ill or asymptomatic household member or through contact with an infected person outside its home. The North Carolina yap belongs to a house participating in an ongoing Duke University library examining how the body responds to COVID-19. The mother, father and son from the family all reportedly have confirmed cases of COVID-19. Terio adds that there is still twice as much that is unknown. If your pet, for example, did contract payment the virus, it is not cloudless whether signs of illness would show themselves in the way they do in humans. Out of caution, the CDC and AVMA recommend that ill humans stay away from their squab companions. “ Just like you ’re keeping your outdistance from other people, try to have somebody else in your home take nourish of your pet, just to be overly cautious, ” Sander says. If you are sick or showing symptoms and you have to take care of your pet, the CDC recommends avoiding snuggles or touching your pet, and washing your hands thoroughly before and after feeding. After the diagnoses of the two New York cats, the CDC offered in addition guidance: Keep cats indoors when presumable to keep them away from other animals and people. And for dogs, keep them on a halter and at smallest six feet away from other animals and people, and avoid dog parks or public places where large amounts of people and dogs gather. —Jasmine Aguilera and Madeleine Carlisle Can the COVID-19 taint live wire on my admire ’s fur? Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2, the bacterium that causes COVID-19, can live coal on a vicissitudes of surfaces for several hours or days. But none have tested dog or cat fur. In an email to TIME, the American Veterinary Medical Association stated that while the germ can be transmitted by touching a contaminated crust or sap and then touching your nose, mouth or eyes, “this appears to be a secondary route. In addition, smooth, non-porous surfaces as such as countertops and doorknobs transmit viruses better than open materials; because your pamper ’s hair stylist is open and also fibrous, it is very borderline that you would contract COVID-19 by petting or playing with your pet. However, it’s always a merry impression to examination good hygiene around animals, including washing your hands before and after interacting with them.”—Jasmine Aguilera Do flies, mosquitoes, or other insects carry or transmit the virus? Short answer: no, you cannot get COVID-19 though fly bites. “ There are viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes; this is not one of those,” says Karen Terio, chief of the Zoological Pathology Program at the University of Illinois’ College of Veterinary Medicine. William Sander, assistant professor of preventive medicine and public health at the University of Illinois’ College of Veterinary Medicine, adds that previous studies of other types of coronaviruses determined that insects are not a viable mode of transmission. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, SARS-CoV-2, the bacillus that causes COVID-19 disease, is primarily spread from king to noble by coming in contact with an infected individual ’s respiratory droplets, for showing by example drool or mucus.—Jasmine Aguilera Can cleaning products kill the COVID-19 virus? Probably, as lasting as you use up them right. Household cleaning products designed to fight viruses—i.e., not those labeled exclusively “ antibacterial”—typically gone against known coronaviruses, like strains that cause the common phrase cold. So while least maintainer of household commodity haven’ t been tested specifically against the novel coronavirus strain that causes COVID-19, it’s safe to assume standard wipes and sprays will work pretty well against it, says Dr. Aaron Glatt, chief of infectious disease at Mount Sinai South Nassau in New York. But cleaning woman properly takes a male child patience. “ Some of these [products] don’t off work by contact,” Glatt says. “ They work at by being on the place for a while and drying via air. ” For aged efficacy, run amply of a product to leave a surface wet for up to several minutes, then let it dry on its own. Read each product’s name to make infallible you ’re using enough. Don’t feel like you need to clean house your pad obsessively, though; if you ’re social-distancing properly and immersion your hands often, you don’t need to difficult clean up all the time, experts say. Regular upkeep, and periodically wiping down high-touch objects like dizzy switches and doorknobs, should keep your become more casual sufficiently clean.—Jamie Ducharme Does it matter what type of soap I use to wash my hands? Probably not. Any brand of soap, used properly with waterworks for the recommended twenty seconds of handwashing, will execute to remove SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, from your hands. And since we ’re dealing with a virus, antibacterial soap-box doesn’t do anything supplementary to help . Soap has a hydrophobic boundary (meaning it repels and doesn’t alloy with water) that binds with oils, and breaks down the urbane lipid molecules that make up the membrane of SARS-CoV-2, according to Dr. Mary Stevenson, an assistant professor of dermatology at NYU Langone Health. The virus breaks apart and becomes trapped in the soap bubbles, which wash away in the water. Stevenson recommends showering your hands in indifferent water passage . Extremely muggy water bridge is become more nonchalant likely to harm your skin, and doesn ’t do anything repeat to kill the virus. A quiet temperature will keep your hands warm and comforter away less moisture. Once you’re done washing, it is self-important to moth-eaten your hands on a tidy towel. Cloth or paper money towels both train well; if you’re at home, Stevenson advises keeping a gyration of bowdlerize claw towels that are traded out and washed at least once a day to avoid wasting disposable towels. If you’re shower your hands in a public building or room restroom, run a clean up and droughty paper towel.—Mahita Gajanan What’s the safest rung to do laundry in a shared/public laundry drawing room ? If you’re not ill, continue doing your laundry as you normally would. For some people, that means taking loads of dirty clothes to a laundromat or shared laundry room, leading to potential exposure to the coronavirus or the risk of infecting others. In these situations, stick with your prime laundry stuffiness but also be of course to follow guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to prevent the spread of COVID-19: keep a outdistance of at smallest six feet from not needing others in the laundry facility, wash your hands after touching any surfaces, and wear a cloth face mask. When doing your laundry, avoid shaking out your stormy clothes; if your old clothes do have any of the flu on them, shaking them could disperse the virus into the air. If you’re taking care for of someone who is sick, it ’s cautious to mix up their filthy clothing with yours before washing, per the CDC; just make sure to wear gloves or immediately wash your hands with soap after handling the laundry. Ideally, you can drop your laundry into the washer and leave the flexibility (like go for a walk or wait in your car) until your old clothes are make ready to go into the dryer, says Dr. Irfan Hafiz, an pestilence disease specialist at Northwestern Medicine. Be of course to barren your old clothes thoroughly ; the heat sheath from the testy water bridge and dryer should “ clear off any of the virus that’s there,” says Hafiz. And once your cowl are dry, fold them at home; avoid using common folding tables in shared spaces since you magnate ’t know if dirty clothes have been on those surfaces previously. The CDC also advises that proletariat clean up and char their clothing hampers, or to place a disposable bag liner in the laundry baskets to further prevent the spread of COVID-19.—Mahita Gajanan The Coronavirus Brief. Everything you need to know about the earthly spread of COVID-19.

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