COVID Hit the US the Hardest for One Big Reason

COVID Hit the US the Hardest for One Big Reason

Compared with health care workers and healthy controls, the patients all had elevated blood levels of cytokines, proteins that festival the immune system to action. Some types of cytokines, called interleukin-8 and interleukin-18, were uplifted in all men but only in some women.

Covid-19 Latest: LA Is Worst Hit U.S. City - Bloomberg

And as Dr. Anthony Fauci of the National Institutes of Health said last week at a White House coronavirus task force briefing, this crisis "is radiant a bright skylight on how unacceptable that is, because yet again, when you have a situation like the coronavirus, are suffering disproportionately."

The results are consistent with what's known circularly sex differences following manifold challenges to the immune system.Women mound faster and stronger immune responses, perhaps because their bodies are rigged to fight pathogens that menace future or newborn children.But over age, an exempt system in a determined pomp of proud alert can be harmful. Most autoimmune diseases — characterized by an overly forcible immune response — are much more predominant in ladies than in one, for example."We are looking at two sides of the same make," said Dr. Marcus Altfeld, an immunologist at the Heinrich Pette Institute and at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany.The findings underscore the need for companies pursing coronavirus vaccines to parse their data by sex and may influence decisions about dosing, Dr. Altfeld and other experts said.

Sweden: Coronavirus deaths soar in the country that didn't lock ...

Skip to contentSite NavigationThe AtlanticPopularLatestSectionsPoliticsIdeasPhotoScienceCulturePodcastsHealthEducationPlanetTechnologyFamilyProjectsBusinessGlobalEventsBooksFictionNewslettersThe Atlantic CrosswordPlay CrosswordThe Print EditionLatest IssuePast IssuesGive a GiftSearch The AtlanticQuick LinksDear TherapistCrossword PuzzleManage SubscriptionPopularLatestSign InSubscribeIdeasThink 168,000 Ventilators Is Too Few? Try Three.The coronavirus has been tardy to distribute across Africa. But a wave may soon hit, and health-care workers are bracing for calamity.April 10, 2020Graeme WoodStaff writer at The AtlanticYASUYOSHI CHIBA / AFP / GETTYIn late March an unknown physician in a New York hospital told CNN that he was working in "Third World" conditions, with patients coming in so strong, and so gravely incapacited, that he and his colleagues would soon be overwhelmed. "Third World" is hardy language, with an antique ring to it—a memory of the 1980s, when lately-night TV ads methodically featured pleas for benevolence attended by appearance of thing, fly-bitten African children barefoot in the dirt outside their huts. It was a stock's cliché of misery. That's us now—or it will be soon, the New York doctor's comparison implied, if we assume't control the spread of this disease. But the comparison ask a question. If America is now Africa, what is Africa? Africa is much better off than it was 30 ages past, but even today, most of the world's very poor live on that continent, and its health-care systems are (with a few exceptions) a wreck. COVID-19 has been slow to arrive in Africa, or at least has been slow to be detected there. But the wave is complaisant. "Our health systems cannot absorb additional shocks," Simon Antara, of the African Field Epidemiology Network, told me from his office in Kampala, Uganda. "We are fit for disaster."Recommended ReadingThe Life in The Simpsons Is No Longer AttainableDani Alexis RyskampThe Deep Story of TrumpismDerek ThompsonThe Year That Changed the InternetEvelyn DouekRecommended ReadingThe Life in The Simpsons Is No Longer AttainableDani Alexis RyskampThe Deep Story of TrumpismDerek ThompsonThe Year That Changed the InternetEvelyn DouekRight now the numbers may appear manageable. The African countries with the most confirmed COVID-19 cases are South Africa (1,934), Algeria (1,666), Egypt (1,560), and Morocco (1,374). No sub-Saharan country other than South Africa has more than 1,000 suit. The countries hardest guess are those most connected with international travel, especially to France. (Kenya, at 184 cases; Ethiopia, at 56; and Nigeria, at 276, have numbers that remain suspiciously low.) Burkina Faso—not an peculiarly connected region, or one with a huge population—has 414 cases. Every country in Africa has testing kits, many of them due to the largesse of China's Jack Ma. In some countries, such as Rwanda , quarantines and the careful tracing of contacts have kept the numbers down. We should not be too relieved that these numbers are not as high as, say, those of the United States (457,000). Every unpolished's numbers started small—and every rural with endemic COVID-19 had a period when outbreaks appear contained, until a thousand fires lighted at once, and the caseload startle doubling every few days. So far, Africa seems unlikely to be exempted from these iron laws of exponential contagious spread. If the spread seems slow to promote, that may be ask no African country has the same volume of international travel as the countries elsewhere that are already suffering.Most worrisome is the lack of any contingency of an effective response. Consider the Central African Republic (CAR), at the geographic hinge of Africa. It has a population of almost 5 million, about the same as Alabama. CAR still has only 10 cases, but the virus is spreading in the frequency, which means that those numbers will eventually ascend very quickly, as they have elsewhere.Alabama expects to need 340 ventilators at the pry of its burst (currently prophesied for April 20). The United States has roughly 172,000 ventilators—and that isn't enough. Sierra Leone (about the population of Washington State) has 13 ventilators. CAR has three ventilators. Liberia (Louisiana) also has only three; South Sudan (Ohio) has four. Or take ICU beds. Some African countries have many; South Africa has 3,000. (The United States has 64,000.) But Somalia has 15 ICU beds for the whole country. The largest city in orient Democratic Republic of Congo has perhaps two dozen ICU beds to serve a division with a population about the same size as Louisiana's, with endemic malaria, malnutrition, tuberculosis, and other diseases that make COVID-19 especially dangerous. (One comorbidity relatively absent in Africa is obesity.)The COVID-19 strategy in most of the improved world has been to "prostrate the crook"—distribute out the infections across the year, so that at any assumed time, enough ventilators and ICU beds are available to accommodate everyone who is sick. If you dispirit the curve enough, the abridged end might even get vaccinated and void infection altogether.In much of Africa, this tactics is nonsensical, because no amount of domicile quarantine will flatten the twist enough to oppose everyone have a turn at one of three ventilators. "It's pointless to attempt," says Tom Peyre-Costa of the Norwegian Refugee Council. "Flattening the curve implies having a leas of eucrasy-watchfulness capacity." With few exceptions, African nations' girl rush capacity is nonexistent. In the past, when patients in very poor African countries needed intensive care, they effectively had two selection: a valetudinarium overseas (an option available to the rich), or the graveyard. Now that other countries (embody the wealthier African countries) have closed their borders and maxed out their own hospitals' resort, the first of these options is gone. The spring capacity for some countries was, in effect, France—which is itself flooded with COVID-19 and unable to help. At least a few small mercies might make endemic COVID-19 more bearable. Having relatively few international connections has given Africa a window of period to prepare, Antara said, and preparations—subject to the extreme limitations—have been intense. Being in the last restraining without widespread outbreaks has given African countries the opportunity to witness how bad those outbreaks can get, and to plan accordingly. Rwanda shut its borders when it still had only a handful of cases. It would not have done so if it hadn't seen Italy and Iran suffering first. (Peyre-Costa notes that the lack of international connections has serious drawbacks, too. In some countries, the health sector is largely remote-led and philanthropist, and as extensive as supply irons and human movement are disrupted, exotic health-care workers will have annoy gain in.)When community transmission begins, it may move more slowly than it has elsewhere.  Most Africans live in cities, but the traffic between those cities is less than in other ability of the world. CAR, for represent, has no domestic airline or railroad track, or even a domestic bus network. People move around much less, almost as if they were manner social isolation avant la lettre. Most of all, Africa will enjoy the advantage of youth. COVID-19 stream mostly the old, and Africans are relatively young, with a median age of 18.9. (The intermediate century in the United States and China is 38.) That means, in effect, that about half of Africans who get COVID-19 will have a low hazard of death. In an aged population such as Japan's, 2 percent of those contaminate might be contemplate to die. In Africa (following the figures here), only 0.3 percent would die, or about 3.8 million people, if everyone were to be at last infected.A further possibility—however remote—is that Africa will be an exception. Already the case numbers are showing some anomalies. In Rwanda, for example, the confirmed COVID-19 cases are all mild. Not one of the 110 patients has required a ventilator. Indeed, none has even been admitted to an ICU. (Here is a video of a Rwandan COVID-19 patient dancing.) The median age of COVID-19 patients there is 36, so age alone does not clear up the fit fortune. The low numbers in Kenya and Ethiopia—both of which have major international airlines that kept flying well into the pandemic—are also puzzles. One possibility, essay Jeffrey Griffiths, a physician at Tufts University who works in Africa, is that some level of endemic immunity already exists in Africa, because of similar viruses whose effects are too mild to have warranted notice. (Griffiths thinks the catastrophe is still coming, but holds out immunity as an option that any remaining optimists can cling to.) And COVID-19 may transmit less readily in warm weather, like the common flu. These would all be incredibly favorable shatter. Perhaps the "Third World," once a neat receptive of piety, will begin to export it to Europe and America.We cannot count on catching a break. Any plight whose most likely bright side is the death of 3.8 million people is a horrible situation indeed. The United States will, for the next Ramadan at least, be preoccupied with its own miseries. But we should prepare for a backer and potently worse wave of catastrophe in Africa.

Why Is COVID-19 Killing So Many Black Americans?

"My sister Rhoda was the matriarch of our genealogy. She was the first in our lineage to go to college, gotta a degree and became a public school teacher," says Reverend Marshall Hatch of Chicago.

This research is a true reflection of the impacts of Covid-19 on sub saharan Africa. In Kenya most public primary schools have been affected. Most schools are rely with funds from mean parents who raises money from small scale farming and deny their kindred upkeeps and donate for construction of classrooms in those rural primary schools. Now that Covid-19 has affected them economically through closed market where they sale their leasehold produces due to social distancing, then education system is affected. Despite state of Kenya introducing online learning for students during the current Covid-19, still this is not achievable as most rural families don't own a radio or electronic babysitter. As the government plans to reopen schools in January 2021, a big challenge is on adequatelearning spaces for students since in Kenya a average classroom has been accommodating between 30-40 students. Where will parents get resources to construct bigger rank to accommodate the students is a nightmare. This then will affect the learner's education especially in rustic poor areas where community members are unable to raise one US dollar daily.

In countries around the world we are seeing essential and service workers, often with blaze incomes, in the line of Covid-19's fire. In the US, "low income" disproportionately means "black" or "brown".

The study has limitations. It was small, and the patients were older than 60 on average, making it difficult to Levy how the immune response changes with age.

"Let's take a patient with diabetes for model. They are already at lofty risk for COVID-19 by goods a chronic condition," says Joseph Valenti, a doctor in Denton, Texas, who promotes awareness of the social determinants of health through his work with the Physicians Foundation.


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